MAC visited the Montblanc writing instrument manufacturing facility in Hamburg Germany

MAC visited the Montblanc writing instrument manufacturing facility in Hamburg Germany
Montblanc Octavian – Patron of Arts 1993 Fountain Pen

The fascinating spider’s web design of the Patron of Art Edition Octavian is adapted from a design typical of the 1920s and also recalls the emperor’s elaborately woven network of power. In the middle of this web of delicate 925 sterling silver threads, which covers the gleaming black barrel and the precious resin cap, sits an artistically shaped, stylised spider. The hand-worked rhodium-plated nib in 18-catat gold also bears a delicately engraved spider.

Gaius Octavian, honoured by the Roman Senate with the name Augustus, was the driving force behind the cultural revival of the epoch that followed numerous years of war. By means of cunning tactical moves, strategic liaisons with powerful Romans and deliberate promotion of the arts, Octavian created an elaborate network of culture. Because of his support for the construction of splendid public buildings, which made Rome a city of marble and a powerhouse of artistic an intellectual endeavour, his name is forced connected with the heyday of the Roman Empire.

Montblanc de la Culture Arts Patronage Award.

Walter Carsen – Canada

Walter Carsen (August 14, 1912 – October 8, 2012) was a German-born Canadian businessman and philanthropist, mainly known for his support of the arts.[1][2]

He was born into a Jewish family in Cologne. When he was six, his father died; Carsen was adopted by his stepfather, a lawyer. He went on to study law. In 1938, he moved to London to avoid persecution by the Nazis; his parents fled to the Netherlands but were later sent to their deaths at Auschwitz. Although a refugee, he was arrested as an enemy alien by the British and sent to a prison camp in Canada. Carsen avoided talking about this time in his life. In 1943, he got a job grinding optical lenses in Toronto. Later that year, he married Clementine Nahm. He volunteered to join the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, at which time he adopted the surname Carsen; his original surname is not known.

In 1945, he started a distribution business for cameras and optical equipment. In 1949, he became the Canadian distributor for Olympus. The company became the largest independent supplier in its field in Canada. Carsen sold the business in 1962 but continued to be involved with real estate, property development and other investments.[1][3]

Carsen and his wife had two children: Johanni and Robert. In 1975, he separated from his wife; the couple never divorced.[1]

Carsen was a major support of the National Ballet of Canada, the Shaw Festival and the Art Gallery of Ontario. He contributed to the ballet’s Walter Carsen Centre and the gallery’s Walter Carsen Reading Room, which were named in his honour. He also helped finance the ballet’s Dancer Transition Resource Centre and the National Ballet School’s artist-in-residence program. He supported 12 new productions for the ballet and its 1991 For the Glory of Mozart dance festival. Carsen also supported art galleries in Hamilton, Windsor, St. Catharines and Oshawa and the Canadian Opera Company. In 2001, he established the Canada Council for the Arts’ Walter Carsen Prize for Excellence in the Performing Arts. He also established the Walter Carsen Fund for the Homeless through the United Way Toronto and York Region.[1]

In 1993, he was awarded the Montblanc de la Culture Arts Patronage Award. In 2002, he received the International Society for the Performing Arts Foundation Angel Award. In 2000, he received the Ramon John Hnatyshyn Award for Voluntarism in the Performing Arts. Carsend was named an officer in the Order of Canada in 2002.[3][1]

He died in Toronto soon after his 100th birthday.[3]

References:

^ a b c d e "Eccentric businessman Walter Carsen was an extraordinary patron of the arts". The Globe and Mail. October 12, 2012.
^ "Walter Carsen, O.C." Toronto Star. October 11, 2012.
^ a b c "Arts philanthropist Walter Carsen dies at 100". CBC News. October 10, 2012.
The Life Acheson Wallace – Readers’ Digest Fund – USA

Sir Run Run Shaw – Hong Kong

Sir Run Run Shaw GBM CBE (November 1907 – 7 January 2014), also known as Shao Yifuand Siu Yat-fu, was a Hong Kong entertainment mogul and philanthropist. He was one of the most influential figures in the Asian entertainment industry.[2] He founded the Shaw Brothers Studio, one of the largest film production companies in Hong Kong, and TVB, the dominant television company in Hong Kong.

The Honourable
Sir Run Run Shaw
GBM, CBE
邵逸夫
Run Run Shaw 1955.jpg
Run Run Shaw in 1955
Born: Shao Renleng November 1907 Ningbo, Zhejiang, Qing China
Died: 7 January 2014(aged 106). Kowloon, Hong Kong
Other names: Shao Yifu, Siu Yat-fu
Uncle Six (Luk Suk)[1]
Occupation: Entrepreneur, filmmaker, investor
Years active: 1926–2011
Board member of: Shaw Brothers Studio, Television Broadcasts Ltd.
Spouse(s): Wong Mee-chun (黃美珍). (m. 1937; died 1987), Mona Fong. (m. 1997; his death 2014)
Children:
Shaw Vee Meng (邵維銘)
Shaw So Man (邵素雯)
Shaw So Wan (邵素雲)
Shaw Vee Chung (邵維鍾)
Parents: Shaw Yuh Hsuen (father), Wang Shun Xiang (mother)
Relatives: Runje Shaw, Runde Shaw, Runme Shaw

A well-known philanthropist, Shaw donated billions of Hong Kong dollars to educational institutions in Hong Kong and mainland China. More than 5,000 buildings on Chinese college campuses bear his name,[3] as does Shaw Collegeof the Chinese University of Hong Kong. He also established the Shaw Prize for Astronomy, Life Science & Medicine and Mathematical Sciences.

Early life:

Shaw was born in Ningbo, Zhejiang, Qing China as the youngest of the six sons of Shanghai textile merchant Shaw Yuh Hsuen (邵行銀) (1867–1920) and his wife Wang Shun Xiang (1871–1939).[4][5] His name at birth was Shao Renleng (邵仁楞), which was later changed to Shao Yifu (邵逸夫) because he thought that the average Chinese person would not know how to pronounce the character 楞 (léng).[6][7] There are a number of explanations given for the use of his English name Run Run Shaw,[3][8] but Shaw reportedly said that it was simply a transcription of his birth name Shao Renleng in the Ningbo dialect.[3][6][9]

There is some confusion surrounding Shaw’s exact date of birth. He celebrated his birthdays on the 14th day of the 10th month of the Chinese calendar, which fell on 23 November in 2007, his 100th birthday. Many sources use 23 November 1907 as his birthdate.[10][11][8] However, the 14th day of the 10th month of the Chinese calendar in 1907 corresponds to 19 November 1907 on the Gregorian calendar, which, according to China Dailywas his birthdate.[12]

As a child, his family moved to Shanghai.[8][13] He graduated from the Shanghai YMCA School, where he learned English.[14]

Career:

Run Run Shaw in 1927

Early ventures:

In 1925, Shaw’s brothers, led by the eldest brother Runje Shaw, established Tianyi Film Company(also called Unique Film Productions) in Shanghai,[15]and Run Run began his film career doing odd jobs for the company.[3] In 1927, Run Run, then 19 years old, went to Singapore to assist his third elder brother Runme Shaw in their business venture there, initially to market films to Southeast Asia’s Chinese community. They established the company that would later become the Shaw Organisation, and were involved in distributing and producing films in Southeast Asia.[15] Tianyi produced what is considered the first sound-on-film Chinese talkiein 1931,[16] and made the first Cantonese sound film in 1932. It was highly successful, and Tianyi established a branch in Hong Kong in 1934.[15]

Just before the Japanese invasion of Shanghai in 1937, Tianyi moved its operation to Hong Kong, shipping its equipment from Shanghai.[17][18] Its studio in Shanghai was destroyed when the Japanese occupied the city.[19] In Hong Kong, Tianyi was reorganised as Nanyang Studio, which later became Shaw Brothers Studio.[20] Run Run was credited with scripting and directing the 1937 comedy film Country Bumpkin Visits His In-laws.[21]

In his early days in Singapore, Run Run supervised the company’s business while Runme travelled north to Malaya to establish ties with local theatre owners.[22] In 1927, having noticed that there were few cinemas in Malaya, Runme decided to open four cinemas there to show their films.[23][24] By 1939, the brothers owned a chain of 139 cinemas across the region;[25] the chain would later include Singapore’s first air-conditioned cinema, at Beach Road. They also established a number of amusement parks throughout the region, including Borneo, Thailand and Java, such as the Great World Amusement Park at Kim Seng Road.[21][26] The brothers began to make Malay films in Singapore in 1937.[27]Inspired by the success of films intended for Malay audiences, for example Leila Majnun in 1934,[27] and other films from the Dutch East Indies, the brothers established Malay Film Productions (MFP).[28] This company would eventually produce over 160 Malay films,[29]many of them starring and directed by P. Ramlee, until their studio at Jalan Ampas ceased production in 1967.[30][31] The period between the end of the 1940s and the beginning of the 1960s is known as the Golden Age of Malay Cinema, with over 300 films made between MFP and Cathay Keris.[32][33] In 1941, the Japanese invaded Singapore and Malaya and confiscated their film equipment. According to Run Run, he and his brother went into hiding during the war[citation needed] and buried more than $4 million in gold, jewellery and cash in their backyard, digging it up after the war and using it to rebuild their business.[8]

Shaw Brothers Studios:

In 1957, Run Run Shaw moved to Hong Kong, which was emerging as the new centre of Chinese-language cinema, and reorganised Tianyi’s operations there as Shaw Brothers Studio. Shaw copied Hollywood by setting up a permanent production site where his actors worked and lived on 46 acres purchased from the government in Clearwater Bay. At the opening of the Shaw Movietown in December 1961, Shaw Studios had the world’s largest privately owned film-production outfit with about 1,200 workers shooting and editing films daily.[34] Shaw productions ran up to two hours and cost as much as $50,000, a lavish sum by Asian standards in the 1960s.[8]

By the 1960s, Shaw Brothers had become the biggest producer of movies in Asia. Notable films produced by Shaw include director Li Han-hsiang’s The Magnificent Concubine, which took the Grand Prix at the 1962 Cannes Film Festival; the 1963 blockbuster musical film The Love Eterne, also directed by Li Han-hsiang; King Hu’s 1966 pioneering wuxia film Come Drink with Me; and Chang Cheh’s 1967 The One-Armed Swordsman, which broke box office records.[35] His companies in Shanghai, Singapore and Hong Kong made more than 1,000 movies, with annual production peaking at 50 pictures in 1974 when Shaw was described as the "Czar of Asian Movies".[36] The popular nostalgic costume dramas of Shaw Brothers celebrated traditional Chinese values and culture, which was in contrast to the then anti-traditional ideology of Communist mainland China (particularly during the Cultural Revolution), but fit with the policy of the Nationalist government of Taiwan and US anti-Communist strategy, while not conflicting with the less provocative approach of the colonial government of Hong Kong.[37] Shaw Studios also popularised the kung fu genrethat had great influence on Eastern and Hollywood directors such as John Woo and Quentin Tarantino.[2][38]

The studio declined in the 1970s, partly due to competition from Golden Harvest formed by his ex-employee Raymond Chow, which came to prominence through kung fu star Bruce Lee whom Shaw Brothers had previously turned down. Shaw began to focus his efforts on television.[10] Shaw also looked for opportunities in the United States and co-produced a handful of US films, including the 1982 sci-fi classic Blade Runner.[2] In 2000, through his company, Shaw Brothers (Hong Kong) Limited, he sold his library of 760 classic titles to Celestial Pictures Limited. Shaw Studios also entered a new era with Shaw’s majority investment (through his various holding companies) in the US$180,000,000 Hong Kong Movie City project, a 1,100,000 square feet (100,000 m2) studio and production facility in Tseung Kwan O.[39]

Television Broadcasts Limited:

In 1967, he co-founded TVB, the first free-to-air television station in Hong Kong, growing it into a multibillion-dollar TV empire with channels broadcast in 30 markets including the US, Canada and Taiwan, making it the world’s largest producer of Chinese-language programs. Shaw took a greater interest in TVB after succeeding the deceased Harold Lee as its chairman in 1980. Shaw leased most of Shaw Brothers’ filmmaking facilities to TVB in 1983. Under his chairmanship, TVB successfully launched the careers of international stars such as Chow Yun-fat and Maggie Cheung, singers such as Leslie Cheung and Anita Mui, and directors like Wong Kar-wai. In 2006, TVB had 80 percent of Hong Kong’s viewers and 78 percent of the city’s TV advertising market.[10]

In December 2011, Shaw retired as chairman of Television Broadcasts Ltd. at the age of 104 after more than 40 years at Hong Kong’s biggest television company,[40] after selling his controlling stake to a group of investors including HTC Corporation chairman Cher Wangand ITC Corporation chairman Charles Chan for HK$6.26 billion in March.[34][41] He was then named chairman emeritus.[38] Shaw was one of the largest shareholders in Macy’safter buying 10 percent of its preferred shares for US$50 million when it was nearly bankrupt in 1991.[8]

Community life:

Shaw was an advocate and financial supporter of the Hong Kong Arts Festival in which he became the first chairman of the Festival. He was also the chairman of the Hong Kong Arts Centre’s Board of Governors. He was a member of the Board of Trustees of United College, one of the colleges of the Chinese University of Hong Kong when the university began in 1967. He became the vice-chairman of the Board of Trustees in 1972 and was appointed to the University Council of the Chinese University in 1977.[26][42] Other public posts included vice-president of the Hong Kong Girl Guides Association and the Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation. He was also the first Asian president of the Hong Kong Red Cross, and a leading figure in the fund raising of the Community Chest of Hong Kong since its inception.[26]

Philanthropy:

Run Run Shaw Science Building, Chinese University of Hong Kong

Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital in Hangzhou, China
Over the years, Shaw donated HK$6.5 billion to charities, schools and hospitals in Hong Kong and mainland China through the Sir Run Run Shaw Charitable Trust and the Shaw Foundation,[43] including donations of HK$4.75 billion to educational institutions in mainland China, which helped to build 6,013 construction projects ranging from primary schools to university libraries.[44]More than 5,000 buildings in China’s college campuses bear Shaw’s Chinese name, "Yifu", which has become so ubiquitous that many mistake it as a generic name.[3]Shaw College, the fourth constituent college of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, is also named after him, whose donations made the establishment of the college possible.[45] His other major donations include 10 million British pounds in 1990 to help establish the Run Run Shaw Institute of Chinese Affairs at Oxford University,[8] and US$13 million for disaster relief after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.[15]

Shaw Prize:

In 2002, Shaw established an international award, the Shaw Prize, for scientists in three areas of research, namely astronomy, mathematics, and life and medical science.[46] The award is up to US$1 million, and the first prize was awarded in 2004.

Personal life:

He was the sixth of the seven children in the Shaw family, and was nicknamed Uncle Six (Luk Sook). His three elder brothers, Runje Shaw, Runde Shaw and Runme Shaw were all heads of the Shaw Studio. Runme Shaw, the third elder brother who co-founded the Shaw Studio with him, died in 1985.

Shaw’s first wife was Lily Wong Mee-chun, who died at age 85 in 1987. In 1997, he married Mona Fong in Las Vegas. A former singer, Mona Fong joined TVB as a procurement manager in 1969 and became the deputy chairman of TVB in 2000.[5][34] Shaw had four children with his first wife: sons Vee Meng and Harold, and daughters Violet and Dorothy.[34] All of his children studied at Oxford University.[8]

Shaw was a lover of Rolls-Royce limousines[38] and a keen practitioner of qigong.[41] Mr. Bean was reportedly his favourite show.[47]

Death:

He died at his residence on 7 January 2014, aged 106, and survived by his four children, nine grandchildren and several great-grandchildren.[48][49] The family did not give the cause of the death.[43]

His body was transferred from the United Christian Hospital to the Hong Kong Funeral Home in North Point on 10 January 2014. Many local leaders attended the funeral that day, including former Chief Executives Tung Chee-wah and Donald Tsang. Shaw’s remains were brought to the Cape Collinson Crematorium in Chai Wan later the same day. PRC PresidentXi Jinping, former Premier Wen Jiabao and National People’s Congress Chairman Zhang Dejiang sent messages of respect.[43]

Honours:

In 1964, after their discovery of a small main belt asteroid between Mars and Jupiter, Chinese astronomers at the Purple Mountain Observatory named it "2899 Runrun Shaw" in Shaw’s honour.[50]

In 1974, Shaw was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE). He received a knighthood in 1977 from Queen Elizabeth II and the Grand Bauhinia Medal(GBM) from the Hong Kong government in 1998.[51][52]

He was awarded an honorary degree of Doctor of Social Science by the Chinese University of Hong Kong in 1981 for his contribution to the university and community.[42] In 1984, he was awarded an honorary degree of Doctor of Laws by the University of Hong Kong to honour an outstanding contribution to applied visual arts, as well as to the community and cultural developments.[26]

In 2007, coinciding with his 100th birthday, he was honoured with the Lifetime Achievement Award at the Hong Kong Film Awards.[15]

In 2013, Shaw received the BAFTA Special Award for his outstanding contribution to cinema.[53]

See also:
Shaw Professor of Chinese
Asteroid 2899 Runrun Shaw
Brothers Runje Shaw, Runme Shaw and Runde Shaw
Cinema of Hong Kong
List of centenarians (businesspeople)

References:
^ "Sir Run Run Shaw". Hong Kong Movie Database. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
^ a b c "HK Movie Mogul Run Run Shaw Has Died". abc news. 7 January 2014.
^ a b c d e Raymond Zhou (8 January 2014). "Movie mogul dies in HK". China Daily USA. Archived from the original on 9 January 2014. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
^ "About Shaw: The Beginning 1924–1933". Shaw Online. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
^ a b Who’s Who 2007: an Annual Biographical Dictionary (159th Annual ed.). A&C Black. 2007. ISBN 978-0-7136-7527-6.
^ a b "「Run Run」來自原名譯音". Mingpao (明報). Chinanews. 8 January 2014.
^ "Unprecendented TVB Kingdom end with Sales". 9 January 2014. Archived from the original on 9 January 2014. Translation of the content of preceding Chinese news website in its last three paragraphs.
^ a b c d e f g h "Run Run Shaw, Chinese-Movie Giant of the Kung Fu Genre, Dies at 106". The New York Times. 6 January 2014. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
^ "Run Run Shaw: A Legend of A Century". News Plus. 9 January 2014.
^ a b c Lee, Mark (23 November 2007). "Film Mogul Run Run Shaw Turns 100, Considers Retiring". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014.
^ Ng, Jeffrey. "Media Mogul Run Run Shaw Dies at 106". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
^ "Shaw remembered for his pioneering work in cinema". China Daily. 7 January 2014. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
^ Frater, Patrick. "Run Run Shaw, Producer of ‘Blade Runner,’ Martial Arts Films, Dies at 106". Variety. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
^ "Sir Run Run Shaw: The legend with a heart of gold". South China Morning Post. 8 January 2014. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
^ a b c d e "Legendary Producer Run Run Shaw Dies at 106". The Hollywood Reporter. 6 January 2014.
^ Gary G. Xu (2012). "Chapter 24 – Chinese Cinema and Technology". In Yingjin Zhang (ed.). A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1444330298. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
^ Yingjin Zhang (2004). Chinese National Cinema. Routledge. p. 76. ISBN 978-0415172905. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
^ Yingchi Chu (2009). Hong Kong Cinema: Coloniser, Motherland and Self. Routledge. p. 30. ISBN 978-0415546331. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
^ Yingjin Zhang (2012). A Companion to Chinese Cinema. John Wiley & Sons. p. 308. ISBN 9781444355970. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
^ "About Shaw – Japanese Occupation – Nanyang Studio, Hong Kong". Shaw Online. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
^ a b "Hong Kong movie mogul Run Run Shaw dies". The Straits Times. 7 January 2014.
^ "About Shaw – Shaw Films, Malaya, Pre War". Shaw Online. Retrieved 16 January2014.
^ Matthew Fletcher and Santha Oorjitham. "Autocrat". AsiaWeek. Archived from the original on 23 June 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
^ "About Shaw – The Beginning 1924–1933". Shaw online. Retrieved 16 January2014.
^ "Run Run Shaw dies". The Standard. 7 January 2014. Archived from the originalon 12 January 2014.
^ a b c d "108th Congregation (1980) – Sir Run Run SHAW". The University of Hong Kong. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
^ a b "About Shaw – Shaw Studio, Pre War – The Great Depression 1930". Shaw Online.
^ Khoo, Gaik Cheng (2006). Reclaiming Adat: Contemporary Malaysian Film and Literature. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-7748-1172-9. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
^ "About Shaw – Malay Film Productions". Shaw Online. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
^ "The Last Days of Malay Film Productions". Shaw Online. Retrieved 16 January2014.
^ Vanitha Nadaraj (7 January 2014), "Sir Run Run Shaw: The Man Who Ushered the Golden Age of Malay Film Industry", The Establishment Post, archived from the original on 8 January 2014
^ "A night when the stars shone". The Long and Winding Road. Retrieved 16 January2014.
^ "About Shaw – Malay Film Productions". Shaw Online. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
^ a b c d "Run Run Shaw, Father of Hong Kong’s Movie Industry, Dies". Bloomberg. 6 January 2014.
^ "Run Run Shaw, Hong Kong film pioneer, dies". BBC. 7 January 2014.
^ Deutsch, Linda (1 May 1974). "Run Run Shaw, Czar of Asian Movies". Lewiston Evening Journal. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
^ Rojas, Carlos; Chow, Eileen (2013). The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford University Press. p. 126.
^ a b c Ng, Jeffrey; Ho, Prudence (6 January 2014). "Hong Kong Media Mogul Dies". The Wall Street Journal.
^ "Who We are – Shaw Studios". Shaw Studios. Archived from the original on 20 May 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2007.
^ Tong, Stephanie (8 December 2011). "Run Run Shaw to Retire as Hong Kong TVB Chairman at Age 104". Bloomberg News.
^ a b Chow, Vivienne (7 January 2014). "Media mogul Run Run Shaw dies". South China Morning Post.
^ a b "23rd Congregation (1981) – Sir Run-run SHAW". The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
^ a b c Zhao, Shirley; Chan, Samuel (10 January 2014). "Run Run Shaw’s body transferred to crematorium as top leaders pay respects". South China Morning Post.
^ "教育部:邵逸夫已向内地教育捐款近47.5亿港币" [Chinese Ministry of Education: Run Run Shaw had donated HK$4.75 billion to education in Mainland China]. 7 January 2014. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
^ "History of College". Shaw College. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
^ "Pioneering movie producer Run Run Shaw dies". CBS. 6 January 2014.
^ Wong, Karen (6 October 2007). "The Great Shawman Turns 100". The Standard. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014.
^ "邵逸夫爵士家中安詳離世 享年107歲". TVB News. 7 January 2014.
^ "Run Run Shaw, godfather of kung fu film-making, dies aged 106". The Guardian. Associated Press. 7 January 2014.
^ Richard Corliss (7 January 2014). "Run Run Shaw: The Last Emperor of Chinese Movies". Time. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
^ Vivienne Chow (7 January 2013). "Tributes as legendary movie mogul and philanthropist Run Run Shaw dies". South China Morning Post.
^ State Intelligence – Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood, No. 47500, The London Gazette, London, Tuesday, 28 March 1978, p.3787
^ "BAFTA in Hong Kong: New Scholarships Announced Sir Run Run Shaw to Receive Special Award". BAFTA. 3 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.

Run Run Shaw

Shaw’s star on the Avenue of Stars
Chinese
邵逸夫
Transcriptions:
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinShào Yìfū
Wade–GilesShao4 I4-fu2
Yale RomanizationShàu Yìfū
IPA[ʂâu îfú]
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationSiuh Yaht-Fū
JyutpingSiu6 Jat6 Fu1
IPA[ɕìːu jɐ̀t fúː]

Sir Simon Rattle – United Kingdom

Sir Simon Denis Rattle OM CBE (born 19 January 1955) is a British conductor.

Conducting the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra in 2006
Born: Simon Denis Rattle. 19 January 1955(age 65). Liverpool, Merseyside, England, UK
Alma mater: Royal Academy of Music, London
Occupation: Conductor of classical music. (active 1970–present)

Known for:

Conductor of Berlin Philharmonic, London Symphony Orchestraand City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra
Spouse(s): Elise Ross (1980–1995), Candace Allen (1996–2004), Magdalena Kožená(2008–present)
Website: www.simonrattle.co.uk
He rose to international prominence during the 1980s and 1990s, while Music Director of the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra (1980–98). Rattle was principal conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic from 2002 to 2018.

It was announced in March 2015 that Rattle would become Music Director of the London Symphony Orchestra from September 2017.

As a passionate supporter of music education, Rattle is also the patron of Birmingham Schools’ Symphony Orchestra, arranged during his tenure with CBSO in mid 1990s. The Youth Orchestra is now under the auspices of charitable business Services for Education.[1]

Rattle received the Brit Award for Outstanding Contribution to Music in 2001 at the Classic Brit Awards.

Early life:

Simon Rattle was born in Liverpool, the son of Pauline Lila Violet (Greening) and Denis Guttridge Rattle, a lieutenant in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve during World War II.[2] He was educated at Liverpool College. Although Rattle studied piano and violin, his early work with orchestras was as a percussionist for the Merseyside Youth Orchestra (now Liverpool Philharmonic Youth Orchestra). He entered the Royal Academy of Music(now part of the University of London), in 1971. There, his teachers included John Carewe. In 1974, his graduation year, Rattle won the John Player International Conducting Competition.

After organising and conducting a performance of Mahler’s Second Symphony while he was still at the Academy, he was talent-spotted by the music agent Martin Campbell-White, of Harold Holt Ltd (now Askonas Holt Ltd), who has since managed Rattle’s career.[3] He spent the academic year 1980/81 at St Anne’s College, Oxford studying English Language and Literature.[4] He had been attracted to the college by the reputation of Dorothy Bednarowska, Fellow and Tutor in English.[5] He was elected an Honorary Fellow of St Anne’s in 1991.[6] He was admitted to the degree of Doctor of Music honoris causa of the University of Oxford in 1999.[7]

Early career and City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra:

In 1974, he was made assistant conductor of the Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra. His first Prom at the Royal Albert Hall, conducting the London Sinfonietta, was, according to the BBC Proms Archive web-site, on 9 August 1976. The programme included Harrison Birtwistle’s Meridian and Arnold Schoenberg’s First Chamber Symphony. In 1977 he became assistant conductor of the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic.

His time with the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra (CBSO) from 1980 to 1998 drew him to the attention of critics and the public. In 1980, Rattle became the CBSO’s Principal Conductor and Artistic Adviser, and in 1990, Music Director. Rattle increased both his profile and that of the orchestra over his tenure. One of his long-term concert projects was the series of concerts of 20th-century music titled "Towards the Millennium". One other major achievement during his time was the move of the CBSO from its former venue, Birmingham Town Hall, to a newly built concert hall, Symphony Hall, in 1991. The BBC commissioned film director Jaine Green to follow him in his final year with the CBSO to make Simon Rattle—Moving On.

Rattle was appointed a CBE in 1987 and made a Knight Bachelor in 1994. In 1992, Rattle was named a Principal Guest Conductor of the Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment(OAE), along with Frans Brüggen. Rattle now has the title of Principal Artist with the OAE. In 2001, he conducted the OAE at Glyndebourne in their first production of Fidelio with a "period-instrument" orchestra.[8]

Rattle strongly supported youth music. He led two attempts at gaining the record for the World’s Largest Orchestra, both designed to raise awareness of youth music in schools. The first, in 1996, was unsuccessful. The second, in 1998, did succeed and the record held at nearly 4,000 musicians[9] until it was broken in 2000 by a group in Vancouver.[10]

In 2000 Rattle was presented with the Gold Medal of the Royal Philharmonic Society, from 29 April to 17 May 2002 he conducted the Vienna Philharmonic orchestra making live recordings of the complete Beethoven Symphonies;[11] and in May 2006 he was made an Honorary Fellow of the Society of Arts. In 2011, the Royal Academy of Music presented him with an Honorary Doctorate. He was appointed Member of the Order of Merit (OM) in the 2014 New Year Honours.[12]

Rattle conducted the London Symphony Orchestra at the Opening of the London Olympics 2012.

Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra:

Rattle made his conducting debut with the Berlin Philharmonic (BPO) in 1987, in a performance of Gustav Mahler’s Symphony No. 6. In 1999, Rattle was appointed as successor to Claudio Abbado as the orchestra’s principal conductor.[13] The appointment, decided on in a 23 June vote by the orchestra’s members, was somewhat controversial, as several members of the orchestra were earlier reported to have preferred Daniel Barenboimfor the post.[14] Nevertheless, Rattle won the post and proceeded to win over his detractors by refusing to sign the contract until he had ensured that every member of the orchestra was paid fairly, and also that the orchestra would gain artistic independence from the Berlin Senate.[15]

Before leaving for Germany and on his arrival, Rattle controversially attacked the British attitude to culture in general, and in particular the artists of the Britart movement,[16]together with the state funding of culture in the UK.[17]

Since his appointment, Rattle has reorganised the Berlin Philharmonic into a foundation, meaning its activities are more under the control of the members rather than politicians. He has also ensured that orchestra members’ wages have increased quite dramatically, after falling over the previous few years.[18] He gave his first concert as principal conductor of the BPO on 7 September 2002, leading performances of Thomas Adès’ Asyla and Mahler’s Symphony No. 5, performances which received rave reviews from the press worldwide[19]and were recorded for CD and DVD release by EMI. Early collaborative projects in the Berlin community with Rattle and the BPO involved a choreographed performance of Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring and a film project with Mark-Anthony Turnage’s Blood on the Floor.[20]He has also continued to champion contemporary music in Berlin.[21] The orchestra has established its first education department during Rattle’s tenure.[22]

Criticism of Rattle’s tenure with the Berlin Philharmonic began to appear after their first season together,[23] and continued in their second season.[24] Rattle himself stated in 2005 that his relationship with the BPO musicians could sometimes be "turbulent", but also "never destructively so".[25]

Simon Rattle conducting the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra in 2006
In 2006, a new controversy began in the German press as to the quality of Rattle’s concerts with the Berlin Philharmonic, with criticism from the German critic Manuel Brug in Die Welt.[26] One musician who wrote to the press to defend Rattle was the pianist Alfred Brendel.[27] In 2007, the BPO/Rattle recording of Brahms’s Ein deutsches Requiem received the Classic FM Gramophone best choral disc award.[28]

Rattle was originally contracted to lead the BPO through 2012, but in April 2008 the BPO musicians voted to extend his contract as chief conductor for an additional ten years past the next season, to 2018.[29] In January 2013, he announced his scheduled departure from the Berlin Philharmonic at the close of the 2017-2018 season.[30] His final Berlin Philharmonic concert as chief conductor was on 20 June 2018.[31]

UNICEF appointed Rattle and the BPO as Goodwill Ambassadors in November 2007.[32] He is a patron of the Elton John AIDS Foundation.[33]

Conducting in North America:

Rattle made his North American debut in 1976, conducting the London Schools Symphony Orchestra at the Hollywood Bowl. He first conducted the Los Angeles Philharmonic in 1979 during the music directorship of Carlo Maria Giulini, and was their Principal Guest Conductor from 1981–1994.[34] He also guest-conducted the Cleveland Orchestra, Chicago Symphony Orchestra, San Francisco Symphony, Toronto Symphony Orchestraand Boston Symphony Orchestra. His New York City debut was with the Los Angeles Philharmonic in 1985. In 2000, Rattle was the Music Director of the Ojai Music Festival.

In 1993, Rattle made his conducting debut with the Philadelphia Orchestra.[35] He returned for guest conducting engagements in 1999[36] and 2000.[37] The musical relationship between Rattle and the Philadelphia Orchestra was reported to be such that Philadelphia wanted to hire Rattle as its next music director after Wolfgang Sawallisch, but Rattle declined.[38] Rattle has continued to guest-conduct the Philadelphia Orchestra, including appearances in 2006[39] and the Philadelphia Orchestra’s first performances of Robert Schumann’s cantata Das Paradies und die Peri in November 2007.[40][41]

London Symphony Orchestra:

In March 2015, the London Symphony Orchestra (LSO) announced the appointment of Rattle as its next music director, effective with the 2017-2018 season, with an initial contract of 5 seasons.[42] He has recorded commercially for the LSO Live label.[43]

Musical styles and recordings:

Rattle has conducted a wide variety of music, including some with "period instruments" (either modern musical instruments whose design is similar to that of instruments commonly in use at the time the piece was composed or the actual historical instrument itself), but he is best known for his interpretations of late 19th- and early 20th-century composers such as Gustav Mahler, with a recording of Mahler’s Second Symphony winning several awards on its release.[44] He has also championed much contemporary music, an example of this being the 1996 TV series Leaving Home, where he presents a 7-part survey of musical styles and conductors with excerpts recorded by the CBSO.

Other recordings in Berlin have included Dvořák tone poems, Mahler’s Symphony No. 9 and Claude Debussy’s La Mer. The Gramophone Magazine praised the latter as a "magnificent disc" and drew favourable comparisons with interpretations of the piece by Rattle’s immediate predecessors, Claudio Abbado and Herbert von Karajan. He has also worked with the Toronto Children’s Chorus. Rattle and the BPO also recorded Gustav Holst’s The Planets (EMI), which was the BBC Music Magazine Orchestra Choice. In addition, Rattle’s acclaimed[45] complete 1989 recording of George Gershwin’s opera Porgy and Bess was used as the soundtrack for the equally acclaimed[46][47] 1993 television production of the work. It was the first made-for-television production of Porgy and Bess ever presented. Rattle’s 2007 recording of Johannes Brahms’s Ein deutsches Requiem received praise from BBC Music Magazine, as "Disc of the Month" for April 2007, "as probably the best new version of the Requiem I’ve heard in quite some years." Rattle and the BPO have also released recordings of Anton Bruckner’s Fourth Symphony (Romantic), and Joseph Haydn’s Symphonies Nos. 88, 89, 90, 91, 92 and Sinfonia Concertante.

Rattle’s recording of Brahms’s Ein deutsches Requiem with the BPO received the Choral Performance Grammy Award in 2008. He has won two other Grammy Awards, one Choral Performance Award for a recording of Stravinsky’s Symphony of Psalms in 2007, and another for Best Orchestral Performance for a recording of Mahler’s unfinished Symphony No. 10 in 2000.[48]

The French Government awarded him the honour of Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur in 2010.

He was elected to the inaugural Gramophone Hall of Fame in 2012.[49]

Personal life:

Rattle’s first marriage was to Elise Ross, an American soprano, with whom he had two sons: Sacha, who is a clarinettist, and Eliot, who is a painter.[50] They were divorced in 1995 after 15 years of marriage. In 1996 he married his second wife,[51] Candace Allen, a Boston-born writer.[52] This second marriage ended in 2004, and in 2008 Rattle married the Czechmezzo-soprano Magdalena Kožená.[53] The couple has two sons, Jonas (born 2005) and Milos (b. 2008), and a daughter Anežka (b. 2014).

Rattle is a member of the Incorporated Society of Musicians and a fan of Liverpool Football Club.[54]

Books:

Kleinert, Annemarie (2009). Music at its Best: The Berlin Philharmonic. From Karajan to Rattle. Norderstedt: BoD. ISBN 978-3-8370-6361-5.
Kenyon, Nicholas (1987), Simon Rattle: The Making of a Conductor, Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-14670-8.
Hartwig, Angela: Rattle at the Door – Sir Simon Rattle and the Berlin Philharmonic 2002 to 2008, published by Evrei, 2009, ISBN 978-3-0002-8093-1 or: Kindle Edition by Amazon, ASIN: B00K001W6G

Discography:

Main article: Simon Rattle discography.

References:

^ "Welcome to the Music Service | Music Services". servicesforeducation.co.uk. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
^ Nick Barratt (1 September 2007). "Family detective". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 27 September 2007.
^ "Artist Details: Sir Simon Rattle". Askonas Holt. Archived from the original on 18 June 2007. Retrieved 17 August 2007.
^ Sholto Byrnes (4 August 2006). "Simon Rattle: Marching to a revolutionary beat". The Independent. London. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
^ Jay, Elizabeth (17 January 2003). "Dorothy Bednarowska". The Independent. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
^ "Muriel Spark and Simon Rattle in honorands list". Oxford University Gazette. 21 January 1999. Archived from the original on 1 July 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
^ "Conferment of Honorary Degrees: Degree of Doctor of Music, Sir Simon Rattle, CBE". Oxford University Gazette (Encaenia 1999, Supplement (1) to Gazette No. 4517). 25 June 1999. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
^ Peter Conrad (29 April 2001). "What’s so funny about Beethoven?". The Observer. London. Retrieved 29 March 2007.
^ "Children create world’s biggest orchestra". BBC. 23 November 1998. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
^ "World’s Largest Orchestra". CBC News. 15 May 2000. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
^ EMI Classics Beethoven Symphonies box set, p. 66 of booklet
^ "No. 60728". The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 December 2013. p. 2.
^ Andrew Clements (24 June 1999). "Picking up the baton". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 22 March 2007.
^ Fiachra Gibbons and Kate Connolly (12 June 1999). "Rattle set for classic music’s top job". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 22 March 2007.
^ Ivan Hewett (7 September 2002). "Wilkommen Sir Simon!". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 22 March 2004.
^ Kate Connolly and Amelia Hill (25 August 2002). "Rattle fires parting shot at Brit Art bratpack". The Observer. London. Retrieved 30 January 2007.
^ Vanessa Thorpe (30 September 2001). "Rattle’s rage at ‘amateur’ Arts Council". The Observer. London. Retrieved 30 January 2007.
^ Kate Connolly (8 September 2002). "Roll over Beethoven, here comes Sir Simon". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 17 August 2007.
^ Kate Connolly (9 September 2002). "Rattle’s rapturous debut". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 22 March 2007.
^ Martin Kettle (30 August 2002). "My crazy idea". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 22 March 2007.
^ Peter G. Davis (13 February 2006). "German Reengineering". New York. Retrieved 3 April 2007.
^ Tom Service (11 May 2007). "The mighty ‘wuah’". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 24 April 2008.
^ Stephen Everson (20 September 2003). "The end of the affair". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 30 January 2007.
^ Charlotte Higgins and Ben Aris (29 April 2004). "Is Rattle’s Berlin honeymoon over?". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 30 January 2007.
^ Charlotte Higgins (7 January 2005). "Karaoke, wild tigers, hysteria: Rattle on his turbulent affair with the Berlin Philharmonic". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 22 March 2007.
^ Manuel Brug (11 May 2006). "Überwältigungsmusik, aber kaum Durchdringung". Die Welt (in German). Retrieved 17 August 2007.
^ Alfred Brendel (31 May 2006). "Criticism of Rattle is really out of tune". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 17 August 2007.
^ Erica Jeal (5 October 2007). "Batons at dawn". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 22 November 2007.
^ EMI Music (29 October 2009). "Sir Simon Rattle verlängert Vertrag mit den Berliner Philharmonikern bis 2018". Simon Rattle website. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
^ "Sir Simon Rattle to step down as Berlin Philharmonic chief conductor in 2018". Grammophone Magazine. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
^ Martin Kettle (21 June 2018). "Rattle bows out at Berlin with Mahler, Merkel and standing ovations". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
^ UNICEF: UNICEF appoints Berliner Philharmoniker Goodwill Ambassador 17 November 2007.
^ "Elton John AIDS Foundation patrons". Ejaf.com. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
^ "Simon Rattle is back in LA. with the Berlin Philharmonic", Los Angeles Times, 21 November 2009
^ Allan Kozinn (16 December 1993). "Rattle Leads the Philadelphia In Mahler’s Ninth Symphony". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 January 2007.
^ Anthony Tommasini (28 January 1999). "Did Briton, Wielding Sibelius, Audition For a Job?". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 January 2007.
^ Bernard Holland (26 January 2000). "A Sense of Gluttony But an Easy Surrender". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 January 2007.
^ Allan Kozinn (30 January 2004). "Top Conductors, Top Orchestras, Brahms in Common". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 January 2007.
^ Allan Kozinn (9 February 2006). "Bruckner’s Seventh and Painterly Tableaus in Song". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 January 2007.
^ Peter Dobrin (25 November 2007). "Passionate about Paradise". Philadelphia Inquirer. Archived from the original on 1 April 2008. Retrieved 24 April 2008.
^ Bernard Holland (3 December 2007). "Repentance as the Key to Open Pearly Gates". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 April 2008.
^ Erica Jeal (4 August 2007). "Simon Rattle: ‘I would have been wary about taking the job had I known about Brexit’". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
^ Erica Jeal (5 October 2007). "Debussy: Pelléas et Mélisande CD review – luxury casting and vivid performances under Rattle and Sellars". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
^ Brandle, Lars (23 June 2001). "Classical Brits Win". Billboard. p. 76.
^ "Gershwin: Porgy & Bess/Rattle – Review by Robert Levine". Classicstoday.com. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
^ Ivana Redwine (3 July 2001). "DVD Pick: "Porgy & Bess"". about.com. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
^ "GERSHWIN Porgy and Bess Rattle DVD[IL]: Classical Reviews- May2002 MusicWeb(UK)". Musicweb-international.com. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
^ Grammy Awards winners Web.archive.org
^ "Sir Simon Rattle (conductor)". Gramophone. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
^ Ed Vulliamy (31 August 2008). "Simon Rattle: bringing Berlin home to Liverpool". The Observer. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
^ Debrett’s People of Today 2005 (18th ed.). Debrett’s. p. 1356. ISBN 1-870520-10-6.
^ Jan Moir (21 March 2003). "I hate to see myself conducting". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 24 February 2007.
^ Neil Fisher (21 October 2006). "Magdalena and the men in her life". The Times. London. Retrieved 22 November 2007.
^ Vulliamy, Ed (31 August 2008). "Liverpool gets it Rattle back". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 23 May 2010.

External links:

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Simon Rattle.
Simon Rattle official website
Berliner Philharmoniker website
Simon Rattle Recordings on EMI Classics
Website of the film and education project "Rhythm is it!
The Planets microsite
Simon Rattle on Charlie Rose
"Simon Rattle collected news and commentary". The New York Times.
Works by or about Simon Rattle in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
Phillipa Ibbotson, "He won’t play the game". Essay from The Guardian, 19 June 2006.
Ed Vulliamy, Simon Rattle: bringing Berlin home to Liverpool, The Observer, 31 August 2008
Television Interview with Simon Rattle from C Music TV.
theartsdesk Q&A interview, 30 July 2010.

Lincoln Kirstein – USA

Lincoln Edward Kirstein (May 4, 1907 – January 5, 1996) was an American writer, impresario, art connoisseur, philanthropist, and cultural figure in New York City, noted especially as co-founder of the New York City Ballet. He developed and sustained the company with his organizing ability and fundraising for more than four decades, serving as the company’s general director from 1946 to 1989. According to the New York Times, he was "an expert in many fields," organizing art exhibits and lecture tours in the same years.[1]

Lincoln Kirstein by Walker Evans
Personal details:
Born: May 4, 1907. Rochester, New York, U.S.
Died: January 5, 1996(aged 88). Manhattan, New York, U.S.
Spouse(s): Fidelma Cadmu. (m. 1941; died 1991)
Parents: Louis E. Kirstein, Rose Stein
Education: Berkshire School
Alma mater: Harvard University
Occupation: Writer, philanthropist
Known for: Co-founder of the New York City Ballet

Awards:

Presidential Medal of Freedom (1984)
National Medal of Arts (1985)
Military service:
Allegiance: United States
Years of service: 1943–1945
Rank: Private First Class
Unit: MFAA
Battles/wars: World War II

Early life:

Kirstein was born in Rochester, New York to Jewish parents, the son of Rose Stein and Louis E. Kirstein (1867–1942).[2][3]His sister was Mina Kirstein[4] and his paternal grandparents were Jeanette (née Leiter) and Edward Kirstein, a successful Rochester clothing manufacturer who ran E. Kirstein and Sons, Company. He grew up in a wealthy, Jewish, Bostonian family and attended the private Berkshire School, along with George Platt Lynes, graduating in 1926.[5]He then attended Harvard, the alma mater of his father, vice-president of Filene’s Department Store, graduating in 1930.[6] His maternal grandfather was Nathan Stein, a senior executive at the Stein-Bloch & Co., in Rochester.[6]

Career:

Early career:

Further information: Hound & Horn and School of American Ballet.
In 1927, while an undergraduate at Harvard, Kirstein was frustrated that the literary magazine The Harvard Advocatewould not invite him to join its editorial board despite his having published several well-regarded pieces in the magazine. With friend Varian Fry (who met his wife Eileen through Lincoln’s sister Mina), he convinced his father to finance the Hound & Horn, a new literary quarterly.[7] After graduation, he moved to New York in 1930, taking the quarterly with him. The publication gained prominence in the artistic world and ran until 1934 when Kirstein decided to focus his energy and resources on the career of George Balanchine and the development of the School of American Ballet[8]

His interest in ballet and Balanchine started when he saw Balanchine’s Apollo performed by the Ballets Russes.[9] Kirstein became determined to bring Balanchine to the United States. In October 1933, together with Edward Warburg, a classmate from Harvard, and Vladimir Dimitriew, Balanchine’s manager, they started the School of American Ballet in Hartford, Connecticut. In 1934, the studio moved to the fourth floor of a building at Madison Avenue and 59th Street in New York City. Warburg’s father, Felix M. Warburg, invited the group of students from the evening class to perform at a private party. The ballet they performed was Serenade, the first major ballet choreographed by Balanchine in the United States. Just months later, Kirstein and Warburg founded, together with Balanchine and Dimitriew, the American Ballet, which later became the resident company of the Metropolitan Opera. According to Kirstein, this arrangement was unsatisfactory because the opera company failed to provide the ballet company with financial resources and artistic freedom.[10]

World War II and Monuments Men:

Further information: Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives program
Kirstein’s theatrical career was interrupted by the United States’ entry into World War II. He enlisted in 1943, and before going overseas, he started working on a project gathering and documenting soldier art. He eventually developed this as the exhibit and book Artists Under Fire. In the spring of 1944, Kirstein traveled to London for the U.S. Arts and Monuments Commission, and after a month, he was transferred to the unit in France that came to be known as the Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives (MFAA). The section was devoted to rescuing and preserving European art.[11] In January 1945, Kirstein was promoted to private first class in Patton’s Third Army, and his unit moved to Germany. Kirstein was involved with retrieving artworks around Munich and from the salt mines at Altaussee. His article "The Quest for the Golden Lamb" about the quest was published in Town & Country in September 1945, the same month he was discharged from the army.

Ballet:

Further information: New York City Ballet
In 1946, Balanchine and Kirstein founded the Ballet Society, which was renamed the New York City Ballet in 1948.[1] In a letter that year, Kirstein stated, "The only justification I have is to enable Balanchine to do exactly what he wants to do in the way he wants to do it."[12]Kirstein served as the company’s general director from 1946 until 1989.[11]

In a 1959 monograph titled What Ballet Is All About Kirstein wrote: "Our Western ballet is a clear if complex blending of human anatomy, solid geometry and acrobatics offered as a symbolic demonstration of manners—the morality of consideration for one human being moving in time with another."[1]

In 1976 poet Vernon Scannell said that Kirstein "regarded dancers not as artists but as acrobats; their skills were, he maintained, entirely physical and he felt his involvement with the dance was a salutary escape from the cerebral and sedentary life into a world that was closer to that of the athlete than the artist."[13] Kirstein’s and Balanchine’s collaboration lasted until the latter’s death in 1983.[9]

Personal life:

Beginning in 1919, Kirstein kept a diary, continuing with the practice until the late 1930s. In writing a 2007 biography of Kirstein, The Worlds of Lincoln Kirstein, Martin Duberman drew on these diaries, as well as Kirstein’s numerous letters, to gain insight to Kirstein’s personal life.[9] Kirstein wrote about enjoying sex with various men, including Harvard undergraduates, sailors, street boys, and casual encounters in the showers at the 63rd Street YMCA. He had longer affairs with dancer Pete Martinez, artist Dan Maloney, and conservator Alexander Jensen Yow. Kirstein had both platonic relationships and many that started as casual sex and developed into long-term friendships.[14]

Lincoln Kirstein House, East 19th Street
He also maintained relationships with women. In 1941, he married Fidelma Cadmus, a painter and the sister of the artist Paul Cadmus.[15] Kirstein and his wife enjoyed an amicable if sometimes stressful relationship until her death in 1991, but she withdrew from painting and then from life, suffering breakdowns that eventually were more permanent than his.[12] Some of his boyfriends lived with them in their East 19th Street house; "Fidelma was enormously fond of most of them."[16] The New York art world considered Kirstein’s bisexuality an "open secret," although he did not publicly acknowledge his sexual orientation until 1982.

Kirstein’s eclectic interests, ambition and keen interest in high culture, funded by independent means, drew a large circle of creative friends from many fields of the arts. These included Glenway Wescott, George Platt Lynes, Jared French, Bernard Perlin, Pavel Tchelitchev, Katherine Anne Porter, Barbara Harrison, Gertrude Stein, Donald Windham, Cecil Beaton, Jean Cocteau, W.H. Auden, George Tooker, Margaret French Cresson, Walker Evans, Sergei Eisenstein and others.[5]

In his later years, Kirstein struggled with bipolar disorder – mania, depression, and paranoia. He destroyed the studio of friend Dan Maloney. He sometimes had to be constrained in a straitjacket for weeks at a psychiatric hospital.[16] His illness did not generally affect his professional creativity until the end of his life. He also suffered two heart attacks in February 1975.

Legacy:

English critic Clement Crisp wrote: "He was one of those rare talents who touch the entire artistic life of their time. Ballet, film, literature, theatre, painting, sculpture, photography all occupied his attention."

Kirstein helped organize a 1959 American tour for musicians and dancers from the Japanese Imperial Household Agency. At that time, Japanese Imperial court music, gagaku,had only rarely been performed outside the Imperial Music Pavilion in Tokyo at some of the great Japanese shrines.[1]

Kirstein commissioned and helped to fund the physical home of the New York City Ballet: the New York State Theater building at Lincoln Center, designed in 1964 by architects Philip Johnson and John Burgee.[17] Despite its conservative modernist exterior, the glittery red and gold interior recalls the imaginative and lavish backdrops of the Ballets Russes. He served as the general director of the ballet company from 1948 to 1989.

On March 26, 1984, President Ronald Reagan presented Kirstein with the Presidential Medal of Freedom for his contributions to the arts.[18]

Kirstein was also a serious collector. Soon after the opening at Lincoln Center of the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, he contributed a significant amount of historic dance materials to the Jerome Robbins Dance Division. Before his death in 1996, Kirstein also donated his personal papers, artworks, and other materials related to the history of dance and his life in the arts to the division. Kirstein was also the primary patron of the artist Paul Cadmus, Fidelma’s brother, buying many of his paintings and subsidizing his living expenses.[19][20] Cadmus had difficulty selling his work through galleries because of the erotically charged depictions of working class and middle class men, which provoked controversy.[5]

Honours:

Presidential Medal of Freedom, U.S.[1]
Handel Medallion, NYC highest cultural award.[1]
Brandeis University Notable Achievement Award.[1]
National Medal of Arts, U.S., 1985.[1]
Royal Society of Arts, Benjamin Franklin Medal, UK, 1981.[1]
National Society of Arts and Letters, National Gold Medal of Merit Award, U.S.[1]
National Museum of Dance Mr. & Mrs. Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney Hall of Fameinductee, 1987.
Theatrical credits:
The Saint of Bleecker Street, [Original, Play, Drama, Play with music], Production Supervisor. December 27, 1954 to April 2, 1955
Misalliance, [Revival, Play, Comedy] New York City Drama Company, Managing director. March 6, 1953 to June 27, 1953
Billy the Kid, [Original, Ballet], Librettist. Choreography by Eugene Loring, music by Aaron Copland, design by Jared French. Premiered May 24, 1938.
Filling Station, [Original, Ballet, One Act], Librettist. Choreography by Lew Christensen, music by Virgil Thomson, design by Paul Cadmus. Premiered January 6, 1938.
Published works:
1929 – A Marriage Message for Mary Frost & James Maybon from Lincoln Kirstein, Paris, Boston privately published by Kirstein
1932 – Flesh Is Heir: An Historical Romance, a novel, New York: Brewer, Warren & Putnam[21]
1934 – Nijinsky, anonymous collaboration (ghostwriting) with Romola Nijinsky, with a foreword by Paul Claudel, London: Victor Gollancz/Toronto: Ryerson Press
1935 – Dance: A Short History of Classic Theatrical Dancing, New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons
1938 – Photographs of America: Walker Evans, in: Walker Evans: American Photographs, New York: Museum of Modern Art
1939 – Ballet Alphabet: A Primer for Laymen, New York: Kamin Publishers
1943 – American Battle Painting: 1776–1918, Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution/New York: Museum of Modern Art
1943 – The Latin-American Collection of the Museum of Modern Art, New York: The Museum of Modern Art
1947 – The Drawings of Pavel Tchelitchew, and his last book, published in 1994, was Tchelitchev, a full-scale study that used a variant spelling of the artist’s name.
1947 – "Henri Cartier-Bresson: Documentary Humanist", in: The Photographs of Henri Cartier-Bresson (with another text by Beaumont Newhall), New York: Museum of Modern Art
1952 – The Classic Ballet: Basic Technique and Terminology with Muriel Stuart, New York: Knopf
1959 – What Ballet Is All About: An American Glossary, with photographs by Martha Swope, Brooklyn, N.Y.: Dance Perspectives
1965 – Rhymes and More Rhymes of a Pfc., a book of poems. The poet W.H. Audenpraised this book as "the most convincing, moving and impressive" book he had read about World War II.
1967 – Whitehouse Happening, a play about President Lincoln’s assassination
1967 – The Dance Encyclopedia, by Anatole Chujoy, P.W. Manchester and Kirsten
1969 – W. Eugene Smith: Success or Failure, Art or History, in: W. Eugene Smith: His Photographs and Notes, New York: Aperture
1970 – Dance: A Short History of Classic Theatrical Dancing
1970 – Movement and Metaphor: Four Centuries of Ballet, New York and Washington: Praeger Publishers
1973 – Elie Nadelman, New York: Eakins Press
1973 – The New York City Ballet with photographs by Martha Swope and George Platt Lynes, New York: Knopf. ISBN 0-394-46652-7
1975 – Nijinsky Dancing
1978 – Thirty Years: Lincoln Kirstein’s The New York City Ballet: expanded to include the years 1973–1978, in celebration of the company’s thirtieth anniversary
1980 – Rhymes of a Pfc (rev. ed. 1980), Boston: David R. Godine. ISBN 0-87923-330-3
1983 – Ballet, Bias and Belief: Three Pamphlets Collected and Other Dance Writings, New York: Dance Horizons. ISBN 0-87127-133-8
1984 – Paul Cadmus, New York: Imago Imprint
1984 – Fifty Ballet Masterworks: From the 16th Century to the 20th Century
1987 – Quarry: A Collection in Lieu of Memoirs, Pasadena, California: Twelvetrees Press, ISBN 0-942642-27-9
1987 – The Poems of Lincoln Kirsten New York: Atheneum. ISBN 0-689-11923-2
1989 – Memorial to a Marriage, a history and meditation on the Adams Memorial, by Augustus Saint-Gaudens and Stanford White.
1991 – By with to and from: A Lincoln Kirstein Reader, edited by Nicholas Jenkins, New York, N.Y.: Farrar Straus and Giroux
1992 – Puss in Boots, by Kirstein and Alain Vaes
1994 – Tchelitchev, Santa Fe, New Mexico: Twelvetrees Press, ISBN 0-942642-40-6
1994 – Mosaic: Memoirs, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux[1]
2007 – Lincoln Kirstein: A Bibliography of Published Writings, 1922–1996, New York: Eakins Press Foundation

See also:

Roberts Commission
Nazi Plunder
Rescuing Da Vinci
The Rape of Europa
Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives program
Monuments Men Foundation for the Preservation of Art
The Monuments Men In this film the character of Pvt. Preston Savitz, played by Bob Balaban, is based loosely on Kirstein.

References:
Notes:

^ a b c d e f g h i j k Jack Anderson (January 6, 1996). "Lincoln Kirstein, City Ballet Co-Founder, Dies". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-02-09. Lincoln Kirstein, a co-founder of the New York City Ballet and a visionary who never wavered in his belief that ballet could flourish in America…
^ "Lincoln Kirstein", New york Public Library
^ "Louis E. Kirstein Dies in Boston at 75". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 11 December 1942. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
^ "Louis E. Kirstein Collection". www.library.hbs.edu. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
^ a b c Leddick, David (November 24, 2015). Intimate Companions: A Triography of George Platt Lynes, Paul Cadmus, Lincoln Kirstein, and Their Circle. Macmillan. ISBN 9781250104786. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
^ a b Selekman, Benjamin. AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK | Louis Edward Kirstein | 1867-1942. The Berman Jewish Policy Archive. pp. 36–46. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
^ Duberman, Martin (2008-09-25). The Worlds of Lincoln Kirstein. 2007: Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 35–36. ISBN 9780810125186.
^ Duberman, p. 215.
^ a b c Dalva, Nancy (18 April 2007). "Kirstein’s Dance of Life: A Patron, But No Saint". Observer. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
^ Kirstein, Lincoln. Blast at Ballet: A Corrective for American Audiences [1938], in Kirstein, Ballet: Bias and Belief: Three Pamphlets Collected and Other Dance Writings(New York: Dance Horizons, 1983), pp. 185-191.
^ a b Monuments Men Foundation: Kuhn, Monuments Men> Kirstein, Pfc. Lincoln E.Archived 2013-10-12 at the Wayback Machine
^ a b Alastair Macaulay, "A Paragon of the Arts, as Both Man and Titan" (review of Martin Duberman, The Worlds of Lincoln Kirstein), Books of the Times, New York Times, 4 May 2007, accessed 5 January 2015
^ Scannell, Vernon. A Proper Gentleman, Robson Books, London: 1977 ISBN 0903895862
^ Duberman, Martin (2007). The worlds of Lincoln Kirstein (1. ed.). New York: Knopf. ISBN 978-1-4000-4132-9.
^ "Miss Fidelma Cadmus Wed". The New York Times. 9 April 1941. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
^ a b "The Kirstein Century". Archived from the original on 2011-07-11. Retrieved 2011-02-26.
^ "David H. Koch Theater". New York City Ballet. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
^ "Recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, 1981-1989". reaganlibrary.archives.gov. Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
^ Cotter, Holland (15 December 1999). "Paul Cadmus Dies at 94; Virtuosic American Painter". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
^ "Paul Cadmus | Fidelma Cadmus Kirstein | The Met". metmuseum.org. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
^ "Lincoln Kirstein Official Website". Archived from the original on 2018-05-04. Retrieved 2012-09-05.
Sources
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Dirda, Michael. "The man who did more for the arts in America than anyone else,"Washington Post. April 22, 2007.
Harris, Andrea. Making Ballet American: Modernism Before and Beyond Balanchine.New York: Oxford University Press, 2017.
Hume, Patrick. Martin Duberman’s Review of The Worlds of Lincoln Kirstein,"ArtsEditor. June 4, 2007.
Kimmelman, Michael. "Kirstein’s Lust for Art and Artists," New York Times. May 11, 2007.
Leddick, David (2000). Intimate Companions: A Triography of George Platt Ly

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